ADVERTISEMENT

Mass Production Of Paper-Based Electrochemical Biosensors By Screen-Printing

The full fabrication of paper-based electrochemical devices by screen-printing has been recently demonstrated, making their mass production and commercialization more feasible.

One decade ago, paper-based analytical devices (PADs) appeared as a simple concept with great possibilities and, so far, many researchers have been attracted by this alternative to the conventional microfluidic. PAD fabrication usually requires developers to pattern paper into regions of hydrophilic paper (liquid flow areas) bounded by hydrophobic regions (liquid barriers). Several methodologies, some of them really ingenious and affordable, have demonstrated that effective, simple, and low-cost PAD fabrication is feasible (i.e., photolithography, analog plotting, plasma treatment, inkjet printing, inkjet etching, flexography printing, laser treatment, paper cutting, wax printing, or screen printing).

ADVERTISEMENT

However, innovative techniques and/or methodologies for patterning paper are always welcome because they can provide new options. In this sense, stamping patterns into paper by screen printing would be an important step towards PAD commercialization because it is a well-established technique for this goal. Even more, electrode detection systems can also be printed with the same equipment in order to obtain paper-based electrochemical devices (ePADs).

Figure 1. Paper-based electrochemical device fully fabricated by screen-printing. Credit: P.J. Lamas-Ardisana

Recently, the Sensor Unit at Cidetec Research Center has proved that this approach is possible and functional. It only requires a suitable selection of the materials and the process parameters. Hence, low viscous dielectric inks and papers with high pore diameters make the ink penetration easier across the substrate and, therefore, facilitate the creation of hydrophobic walls. Figure 1 shows an example of ePAD fully fabricated by screen printing, where only commercially available materials have been used (paper, UV ink, dilute and conductive inks). This design has been used as an electrochemical transducer in disposable glucose biosensors that were tested in five commercial soft drinks. The tactical distribution of the reagents along the hydrophilic channel allows the sample analysis without any dilution or treatment; just a small drop at the channel entrance is enough.

Figure 2. Origami paper-based electrochemical devices fully fabricated by screen-printing. Credit: P.J. Lamas-Ardisana

This research group has developed other designs based on the origami ePAD concept (figure 2). These 3D fluidic architectures are also fabricated by screen-printing, and the final configuration is obtained by properly folding a piece of paper previously patterned. These devices open new opportunities, allowing for operations that would be impossible with 2D ePAds. On the other hand, they are also developing lateral-flow immunoassays in ePADs. Compared with the current commercial lateral flow test strips, where the conventional detection is usually based on visual observation, the electrochemical detection could provide quantitative results, a prized goal in this market.

This research is carried out at Cidetec within the project INNPAPER (INNovative and Smart Printed Electronics based on Multifunctionalized PAper: from Smart Labelling to Point of Care Bioplatforms), a research project funded from the European Community’s H2020 Programme (grant agreement Nr. 760876).

ADVERTISEMENT

Details about these findings can be found in the article entitled Glucose biosensor based on disposable electrochemical paper-based transducers fully fabricated by screen-printing, recently published in the journal Biosensors and Bioelectronics, and the website www.innpaper.eu. This work was conducted by P.J. Lamas-Ardisana, G. Martínez-Paredes, L. Añorga, and H.J. Grande from CIDETEC.

Comments

READ THIS NEXT

Do Not Release Carbon Dioxide If Flammable Vapors Are Present – Static Electricity May Lead To Explosion

Carbon dioxide gas is widely used for fire extinguishment. At elevated pressures, the gas can be liquefied and kept in […]

Weight Diversity: A Stigma-Reduction Mechanism to Reduce Weight-Based Achievement Disparities

The odds of academic success are stacked against youth with overweight and obesity. On average, youth with higher weight do […]

What Are The Reactants Of Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration?

The reactants of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and water, meaning during photosynthesis carbon dioxide and water are taken in to […]

What Is A Baby Fox Called: Name And Pictures

Baby foxes can go by a few different names. They can be called cups, pups, or kits. While different breeds […]

Studying The Orbit Lifetimes Of Spacecrafts Around Moons: The Callisto-Jupiter System Case

Space exploration has occupied a major impact on the changes that the modern society has experienced. The range of benefits […]

Does Air Force One Really Need A New $4 Billion Upgrade?

In the fall of 2016, Donald Trump proved that with the help of his Twitter account, he could do anything, […]

Sham (Placebo) Surgery: Fake News Or Snake Oil?

Testing a drug against a placebo in a randomized double-blinded trial is the gold standard in the development of new […]

Science Trends is a popular source of science news and education around the world. We cover everything from solar power cell technology to climate change to cancer research. We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world we live in and the latest scientific breakthroughs. Want to know more?