ADVERTISEMENT

If You Burn Them, They Will Return: A Case Of Ant-Plant Interactions In A Fire-Prone Brazilian Ecosystem

Climate changes and anthropogenic disturbances are current threats to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Ecosystem health depends not only on its biodiversity per se but also on services and functions played by species and their interactions. Ant-plant interactions are an outstanding model to study ecosystem structure and functioning since they each fill distinct ecological roles.

Thus, the understanding of how ant-plant interactions dynamics, or ant-plant interaction networks, are affected by climatic fluctuations and anthropogenic fires is relevant to predict ecological and evolutionary outcomes in a changing world.

ADVERTISEMENT

Our study looked for whether the temporal dynamics of ant-plant networks is driven by seasonal variation in climatic conditions (i.e., temperature and precipitation), and to what extent fire disturbance alters this dynamic. We also studied the thermal response of ant community in order to understand temperature influence on ant activity, and consequently, ants’ tolerance to climate change. To do so, we carried out this field research in a tropical fire-prone ecosystem, locally known as Campo Rupestre.

Campo Rupestre is a tropical megadiverse mountaintop grassland ecosystem that occurs in Brazil, wherein plant-related rewards located in flowers, fruits, and extrafloral nectaries are used as food by ants. This fire-prone environment has been subjected to recurrent human-made fires and hard climatic filters that shape species distribution and vegetation cycles. Ongoing evidence has shown negative effects of fire on its vegetation structure and on ants that live in the soil. More than that, we already know that climatic conditions strongly change along its mountain range influencing species occurrence.

In this way, we monitored ants foraging on plants and consuming food resources (i.e., plant-derived rewards), quarterly, for two consequent years: one before unmanaged fire events have occurred and the other after the disturbance. We have found that warmer and wetter conditions prompted increases in the diversity and frequency of ant-plant interactions (measured by ecological network metrics). These results are likely due to upsurges in plant resource availability in these periods, and higher ant activity in these abiotic conditions. We also observed that the studied ant community has a low heterogeneity and a huge overlap in its thermal responses, which means a wide thermal niche that leads to higher tolerance to temperature fluctuation. Our study also has shown that, in spite of negative effects of fire on the diversity and frequency of interaction networks, these effects are quick, as interactions recovered up to up to half a year after fire disturbance.

ADVERTISEMENT

These findings highlight that wide thermal response of ant species and fire resilience to fire shown in ant-plant interactions likely promote ant-plant networks’ reliability over multiple seasons. The high overlap and broad thermal niches of ant species interacting with plant resources suggest that ant diversity plays a minor role in the tolerance against climatic changes in this fire-adapted community. These pieces of evidence open a new path to explore thermal responses of species and their ecological interactions in broader gradients of environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances, such as resource deprivement under deforestation and/or land use.

Long-term studies that consider assisted burnings are desirable to forecast the impact of fire regimes and their synergy with climate on fire-prone ecosystems functioning in our changing world. To end, our findings adds to evidence showing that ecological interaction networks are useful tools to monitor the impacts of environmental changes such as anthropogenic disturbances.

These findings are described in the article entitled Resilience to fire and climate seasonality drive the temporal dynamics of ant-plant interactions in a fire-prone ecosystem, recently published in the journal Ecological Indicators.

Comments

READ THIS NEXT

Why Certain Parks Gentrify Surrounding Neighborhoods And What We Can Do About It

Urban parks, trails, and other green spaces are vital amenities for city dwellers. Research consistently shows they bring a number […]

Curbing “Addictive” Behavior In Soft Drink Consumption

Humans, unfortunately, seem to have a propensity for addictive behavior. Whether it be binge-eating, alcohol abuse or even more abstract […]

Developing Carbon-limiting Disposal Scenarios For Urban Pruning Waste

The removal of branches, fruits, inflorescences or foliage from urban afforestation promotes the longevity of trees, and the residues generated […]

Measuring The Water And Energy In An Alpine Peatland

Peatlands are wetlands with at least a 30-40 cm thick peat layer and are highly dependent on water. In these […]

Dimensional Engineering: Another Approach To Resolving The Stability Issue Of High-efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells

Perovskite solar cell has shown rapid development in the past few years, and its features of low cost and high […]

(−)-Epicatechin, A Natural Flavanol Compound, Protects Against Acute Brain Injuries 

(−)-Epicatechin (EC) is a natural flavanol compound found at high concentrations in green tea and cocoa.1 Recently, we and others […]

High-Resolution Insights Into Neurodegeneration

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two devastating neurodegenerative disorders. FTD groups different types of dementias affecting […]

Science Trends is a popular source of science news and education around the world. We cover everything from solar power cell technology to climate change to cancer research. We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world we live in and the latest scientific breakthroughs. Want to know more?