Finding Earth 2.0 And Mars 2.0 Using Earth Similarity index & Mars Similarity index

Exoplanets are those planets outside our solar system. We are interested in finding Earth version 2.0 and in our work, we have extended to find Mars 2.0 as well. Presently more than 3500 exoplanets are discovered and huge space data is maintained by Planetary Habitable Laboratory- Exoplanet Catalog (PHL-EC). Presently there is no actual way to detect the surface temperature of exoplanets and in our research, we have published a calibration technique to estimate it.


The mathematical formulation for both ESI and MSI was done on the basis of a work started from Bloom in Ecology system (1981). Even though this connection was done to few samples of Exoplanets by Schulze-Makuch et al. 2011 to find ESI previously. In this work, we carried out extensive research on the formulation by re-deriving (basically showed the actual connection in the derivation) the result of similarity index and calculated ESI for 3500 exoplanets and came out with a brand new relation for Mars as MSI.


To find Earth-like planets:

Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a geometrical mean of four physical parameters namely: radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature, with range 0 (dissimilar to Earth) to 1 (similar to Earth).  Ex: Mars has global ESI value equal to 0.73 (i.e. 73% similar to Earth). Using this metric tool we have calculated the ESI of all the confirmed exoplanets and graphically represented below.

Calibration of surface temperature of exoplanets:

The surface temperature is calibrated from the known solar system data of rocky objects with atmosphere with respect to equilibrium temperature. The graphical formulation is done based on the above hypothesis.

To find Mars-like planets:

Mars Similarity index (MSI) is a geometrical mean of four physical parameters namely: radius, density, escape velocity, and surface temperature, with range 0 (dissimilar to Mars) to 1 (similar to Mars).  Ex: Earth has global MSI value equal to 0.68 (i.e. 68% similar to Mars). Using this metric tool we have calculated the MSI of confirmed exoplanets and graphically represented below.

The reason we are interested in Mars-like planets is to search extremophile life form and the presence of methane found by curiosity rover backs our research.


This study, Indexing of exoplanets in search for potential habitability: application to Mars-like worlds, was recently published in the journal Astrophysics and Space Science.



Why Haven’t Aliens Made Contact With Earth, According To Science?

Have you ever wondered why we haven’t heard from aliens? A new theory released recently has theorized that aliens have […]

How Memory Processes Are Affected By Depression

Introduction Episodic memories, or memories for where/what/when information, is a dynamic process. Whenever we learn or encode information, it takes […]

Shungite: A Lustrous Black Mineraloid

Shungite is a lightweight yet hard stone with a deep black finish. Shungite is also a specific form of carbon […]

From Toxin To Tool: Adapting The Dark Side Of Chemistry

Often chemical reactions¬†that are discovered in the laboratory are later found operating in our own¬†bodies.¬†¬†Recently, a research team led by¬†Alexander […]

Starve A Cold, Feed A Fever? Addressing Poor Nutrition In Inpatients

What would you do if you knew of a treatment that would improve your acutely ill inpatient‚Äôs immune function, lean […]

The Search For Novel Inexpensive And Efficient Non-Noble Catalysts

In the past few decades, the rapid consumption of non-renewable fossil fuels has caused significant environmental and social problems on […]

Species Of Fish Passes The Mirror Test For Self-Recognition

If the past 100 years or so of biology have taught us anything, it is that human beings are not […]

Science Trends is a popular source of science news and education around the world. We cover everything from solar power cell technology to climate change to cancer research. We help hundreds of thousands of people every month learn about the world we live in and the latest scientific breakthroughs. Want to know more?