Space

Integer Aperture Estimation In The Presence Of Biases

Integer aperture estimation, also called integer ambiguity resolution, is a critical step to realized fast and precise global navigation satellite system (GNSS) positioning. It is a process which projects a float ambiguity to an integer ambiguity and then judges whether to fix that integer. Decades of research offer many projection methods. Efficiency and success rate

Predicting CMEs And Solar Flares

The two biggest energy explosions in our Solar System are solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). These eruptions can have a serious effect on our modern society’s way of life. A main disparity between the enormous eruptions is the scale on which they appear. A flare is a localized sudden brief brightening on the

Finding Time For Evolution

Time is a concept that is taken for granted in most areas of human life. It is treated casually without much thought, and we only seem to run into trouble when trying to take the concept apart to see what exactly makes it tick. But tearing apart concepts is what theoretical physicists do best, and

Sources Of The High-energy Tail Of Solar Wind

The heliosphere is filled with hot dilute plasma known as solar wind. Due to thermal collisions, the velocity distribution of ions follows a Maxwell distribution. The measured energy spectrum of the ions above the peak at about 1 keV/nucleon, however, is not falling off as rapidly as the Maxwell distribution would predict. Instead, the spectrum