Earth & Environment

Linking Surface Volcanism To Deep Mantle Processes

Although most surface volcanism on the Earth is found at plate boundaries and is caused by shallow mantle processes, some surface volcanoes (e.g, Hawaii) occur far away from plate boundaries. It has been suggested that the formation of the intraplate volcanism is more related to processes in the deepest part of the Earth’s mantle. The

Will The Real Carbon Footprint Please Stand Up?

Slippery things, these carbon footprints can be. In principle, they are simple: the sum of all global warming emissions from cradle to grave of a given product. However, the wrinkle comes with multi-product processes – how is that footprint allocated between the various products coming out? And along the same lines, what exactly is a

Autotroph Vs Heterotroph: The Difference

The difference between an autotroph vs. heterotroph lies in the organism’s ability either produce its own food or need to ingest food. Autotrophs, such as plants, can produce their own food from light via photosynthesis or chemicals via chemosynthesis. Heterotrophs, such as humans, require ingesting food in order to produce energy and thus are not

How Many Countries In Africa?

The continent of Africa has 54 countries in total according to the United Nations, including recognized states and territories. However, there are some disputed territories that could change the number of countries. Africa is the world’s second most populated and second largest continent. It is also home to a wide variety of countries. The exact

The Role Of Water In Aerosol Climate Forcing

We’re familiar with the role greenhouse gases play as the driving force behind climate change, through their absorption of longwave radiation and heating of the lower atmosphere. A lesser-known participant in radiative forcing is atmospheric aerosol. Because of their short lifetime that is on the order of a week, the aerosol impact on climate is

Life Cycle Of A Butterfly: Stages Of Life

The life cycle of a butterfly includes a process called metamorphosis where each butterfly goes through 4 stages from an egg to a larva, then to a pupa, and finally, they turn into an adult butterfly. These 4 stages of a butterflies life varies slightly depending on the specific type of butterfly, as discussed below.