Earth & Environment

5 Examples Of Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors are factors that impact an ecosystem which do not arise from living things. Abiotic factors impact the organisms living within that ecosystem, but they are not generated by living things themselves. The phrase “abiotic” means “without life”, in contrast to biotic factors which are factors impacting an ecosystem generated by living things. Common

Studying A Recent, Rapid Decline In Established Apple Trees

Apples are one of the most common and beloved fruits. From their center of origin in Central Asia, apples have spread and are cultivated in temperate regions around the world. Besides providing a delicious and nutritious fruit, apple orchards also produce great economic benefits for the areas in which they are grown. Just for one

Rare Earth Elements From Manganese Oxide-Rich Sediments: Some New Evidence Of Extraction And Separation

As I wrote in one of my previous articles, the industry is becoming more and more demanding of many metals. The perceived supply risk for essential raw materials used in the growth of green energy and other state-of-the-art technologies provides the motivation for investigating new sources of these raw materials. Many are considered critical, given

Earthquakes And The Strength Of The Crust In Taiwan

The strength of the crust plays a critical role in controlling the size and recurrence time of earthquakes, as well as the evolution of plate tectonics and mountain building over the geological time scale. With a recently developed algorithm, we were able to probe the strength evolution of the rocks in the lower crust beneath

Biochemical Parameters Allow The Identification Of Tolerant Genotypes Of Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) To Drought And Heat Stress

Arid and semi-arid ecosystems occupy vast regions in many countries in the world. In these regions, edaphic and climatic conditions impose important restrictions on agriculture. Particularly in Argentina, cattle breeding activity is carried out in the northwest of the country in an area that covers 10 million hectares where arid and semi-arid environments predominate. The

The 5 Oceans Of The World

In addition to the seven continents, there are five oceans and: the Atlantic Ocean, the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian ocean, and the Southern Ocean. The Southern ocean was officially recognized in 2000, prior to that geographers recognized only the four other oceans. Together, these five oceans cover approximately 71% of the Earth’s

Earth Timeline: From 4.5 Billion Years Ago To Today

Over 4.5 billion years ago, our solar system formed from a giant molecular cloud that collapsed under its own tremendous gravity. The hot stew of hydrogen and helium gave birth to our sun and flung out a wide disc of gas and particles in the surrounding space. Over millions of years, this disc of gas

Tracking Magmatic And Metasomatic Processes In The East Asian Mantle Wedge

The Asian continental collage was formed by the assembly of several continental fragments through multiple subduction-accretion-collision processes. These prolonged tectonic cycles left their imprints on the East Asian mantle domain. The paper by Wang et al. (2019) attempts to investigate the magmatic and metasomatic processes in the mantle wedge beneath South Korea, a central region

Helping Sturgeon Survive – Studies On Swimming Performance And Fishways Can Make A Contribution

Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are primitive fishes that mature late and display migratory behavior. There are 25 species of sturgeon in the world and they have substantial value for both scientific and economic enterprises. However, for the past one hundred years, a rapid decline in sturgeon populations has been caused by human activities, including overfishing, pollution, and