About The Author

Massimo is a research scientist at the Italian National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies.

How The Brain Learns To Control Itself

Behavioral adaptation to environmental changes and unexpected events is crucial for survival, and it requires efficient decision-making and learning capabilities. Neuromodulators (especially a sub-class of them, called monoamines) are molecules playing an essential role in this adaptation process. Most monoamines are synthesized by specific neurons in a brain region called the brainstem and then released toward