About The Author

My main interests include sustainable farming, agro-ecology and human-environment interactions. I currently work with effects of climate, landscape complexity and local management on ecosystem functioning in apple orchards and how that translates into effects on apple production and quality

Integrated Pollination Management

Today we separate the two most common ways of managing pollination services in crops. One is the use of managed bees, such as honey bees (Apis spp.) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.), usually by saturation of the crop area. The other is through the conservation, management, and even addition, of flower resources and semi-natural vegetation