About The Author

António Cardoso Marques currently works at the Department of Management and Economics, Universidade da Beira Interior. António does research in Energy Economics, Regulation and Industrial Organization. One of his current projects is the think tank 'GAPEER17 - Gestão Ativa da Procura de Energia: Eficiência e Resposta' - Sharing knowledge on Energy Demand Side.

Using Three Approaches To Determine Whether Renewable Energy Sources Have Replaced Fossil Fuel

The exploitation of wind and solar sources has transformed the electricity production systems, allowing for a diversified, endogenous, and green mix of electricity sources. It would be expected that the penetration of renewable electricity sources (RES), such as wind power, solar photovoltaic (PV), bioenergy, geothermal, and hydropower would substitute fossil fuel sources. In the meantime,